Chinese (Traditional) Chinese (Simplified)
Home本期文章「營商」怎能「宣教」? -- 為營商宣教釋疑 (上)

【職場上的祭司】「營商」怎能「宣教」? -- 為營商宣教釋疑(上)

 

宣教模式中,為何會冒出「營商事工」(BAM, Business as Mission)?相信每位關心宣教的弟兄姊妹都想知道。過去數十年,教會及大部分差會都是差派專職宣教士(career missionary),在福音未達或福音未得之民中,以直接開荒佈道、建立教會的身分在當地服侍主,他們無論在教會或當地均被視為傳道人或宣教士。以前若有教會或差會差派帶職宣教士,他們大都會以「掛名」形式做帶職工作,實際則以傳福音工作為主,畢竟這也切合眾弟兄姊妹(差派者)對受差者的期許。筆者最近參加一個差遣禮,被差者(是按立牧師)在工場的身分是商人,而教會差傳委員會主席(也是按立牧師)在典禮當天竟然公開「勸勉」教會的弟兄姊妹不要支持他的生意,好讓被差者好好專注傳福音!可想而知,教會對專職宣教士的觀念是如何根深柢固,以為營商宣教,不過是掛名而已。筆者對此不敢認同。到底為甚麼要捨棄專職宣教而取營商宣教?這可從兩方面來分析。

一、現今工場發展

全球約有 16,350 個族群,其中 6,642 個(人口約 27 億 5,000 萬)為福音未達或未得群體,當中大部分生活在對福音封閉的地區,而穆斯林群體佔了很大比例。面對這些群體或地區,傳統的專職宣教士不可能取得入境簽證,哪如何能在當中工作、為主得人?要進入這些地區服侍,就須要以「創」意、「啟」導進去。另一方面,即使在對福音較開放的大城市,要得着未得之民並不容易,因為他們傳統上對基督教及宣教士存有偏見或誤解,再加上文化差異,不會主動進入教會,更不輕易接受傳統的專職宣教士在他們當中。在這些未得之民中,以「社區救援」(即透過加入非政府組織工作)形式服侍的工作人員,在過去十多年已漸被當地政府看透、認定為宣教士,除派發救援物資外,在不少地區,在簽證期限及可行的活動上已多被制肘;他們一旦完成救援工作,就會被「請」出境。此外,當地政府近年看準這是基督教支持的服務工作,更大加敲詐,藉此牟利,在各方面徵收稅款或手續費,儼然成為政府高收入項目。因此,宣教士以商人身分進入工場,可說是有效及被接納的方式,讓他們在日常工作中,較自然地與當地人交往,建立關係,從而分享福音,見證基督。

二、營商宣教是實踐帶職宣教一個有效方式

鑑於在創啟地區福音工作困難,也不容易產生果效,所以近年開始做的研究中,一個較重要的課題是「有果效的宣教實踐」,就着創啟地區中那些較有果效的宣教方法作調查。結果顯示,最能讓福音在當地人心中植根的方法,是與他們建立互相信任的關係。要有效帶出福音信息,都須要跟受者建立一定的關係(或稱「緣」)。現代人生活繁忙緊張,騙徒猖獗,人際間的信任尤為重要,這也解釋了在煩囂的街上派單張果效微弱的原因; 因未能與受眾建立一定的關係,故不用數秒,單張已被投進垃圾箱。建立人際之間的關係大致有五方面,或可稱之為「五緣」:

• 血緣──彼此是親戚或親人而有的血緣關係;

• 地緣──彼此是左鄰右里之地域關係,經過多日見面接觸而建立關係;

• 趣緣──彼此有共同興趣,例如一起健身、打球而漸漸建立關係;

• 機緣──因某種機會,例如在長途旅程中偶然坐在一起而建立關係;

• 工緣──因工作須彼此互動接觸而建立關係。

在創啟地區,宣教士若要與當地人建立較自然的關係,「工緣」尤為重要。在非政府組織及專業服務不易實行的情況下,透過營商而建立的工緣就顯得很具策略價值。過往許多宣教士都掙扎如何能在創啟地區建立福音的橋樑,但營商宣教則不用刻意做「搭橋」工夫(想着用甚麼方式跟當地人建立關係),因為營商宣教士(BAMers)能透過他們的工作(生意)直接「栽進」人群中。能有被當地人認同的工作(貢獻當地社會,如建立就業機會)和美好的生活見證,就不致被誤會「好吃懶做、無所事事」的「文化侵略者」。

(下期待續)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

Go to top