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【耶和華名譯史】「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(22)

 

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丁道爾 Tyndale 流芳百世

以 1526-1530 的丁道爾的新舊約為藍本,出版了四部英譯:

1)1535 Coverdale Bible (Great Bible);

2)1537 Matthew Bible;

3)1557 Geneva Bible(GNV);

4)1611 King James Version(KJV) 。

之後,再以 King James Version(KJV)為根據,修訂了 1901 American Standard Version(ASV)。之後,再以 1901 American Standard Version(ASV)為根據,修訂三部新譯本:

1)1971 The Living Bible (TLB),是 Kenneth N. Taylor's 的意譯本(paraphrase);

2)1996 New Living Translation (NLT),是 TLB 重新修訂為 NLT;

3)2000 World English Bible (WEB)。

1901 American Standard Version(ASV) 和 1971 The Living Bible (TLB)都是用 Jehovah 名字,但新的兩部 1996 New Living Translation (NLT)和 2000  World English Bible (WEB)更由 Jehovah 改用了比較正確的 Yahweh 名字。

第四個突破 2000 World English Bible (WEB)

平反耶威 Yahweh 的名字,第一個突破由是從 Wycliffe's Bible 出現 Jehovah 的 4次,1557 Geneva Bible 和 1611 King James Version 出現的 8 次。

第二個突破是 1862 Young's Literal Translation (YLT)出現 Jehovah 全數 5,787次,1890 Darby Bible (DBY) 出現 5,791次,到 1901 American Standard Version (ASV) 出現 5,831次。

第三個突破是 1902 年 Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR),率先把 Jehovah 名字琢磨到 Yahweh,1949 Bible in Basic English (BBE) 也改用了Yahweh,出現五次,1966 Amplified Bible Classic Edition (AMPC)出現一次,1996 New Living Translation (NLT)出現了 11 次,2004 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)出現 495 次。

第四個突破是 2000 World English Bible (WEB) 出現全數 5,795 次的 Yahweh, 2011 Lexham English Bible (LEB)出現 5,824 次,2011 Name of God Bible(NOG) 出現 5,856 次。

由以上譯本中,可見丁道爾的深遠的影響,一脈單傳,連綿不絕。五百年後的今天,在許多譯本裡,還追溯到他手筆的踪跡。Coverdale Bible (Great Bible),Matthew Bible, Geneva Bible(GNV), King James Version(KJV) ,和 Revised Version (RV1885),都是以他的手稿為藍本。King James Version 更是燴炙人口,繼而成就了 American Standard Version (ASV),成為日後 The Living Bible (TLB),New Living Translation (NLT) 和 2000 World English Bible (WEB)的根據。

回想 1534 年,丁道爾在他譯本序言中,鄭重宣布神的名是 Jehovah,他英譯聖經的苦心,平反神名的宏願,推動更正運動的功勞,終於開花結子。他捍衛真理而殉道,功不可沒,流芳百世。第一個突破:平反『耶和華』之名

以丁道爾譯本為根據的英譯本

以下各行順序為:年份;譯本;神名;出現次數

1535 Coverdale Bible (Great Bible) Jehovah 2

1537 Matthew Bible LORD

1557 Geneva Bible(GNV) Jehovah 8

1611 King James Version(KJV Jehovah 8

1901 American Standard Version (ASV) Jehovah 5,831

1971 The Living Bible (NLB) Jehovah 408

1994 21st Century King James (KJ21) Jehovah 408

1996 The New Living Translation (NLT) Yahweh 11

2000 World English Bible Yahwen 5,795


其他中英譯本所採用神的名:

以下各行順序為:年份;譯本;所採用神的名;出現次數

第一個突破:平反『耶和華』之名

1395 Wycliffe's Bible (WYC) Iehovah 4

1522 Luther Bible Herr

1525 Tyndale Bible Iehouah

1535 Coverdale Bible (Great Bible) Jehovah 2

1537 Matthew Bible Jehovah

1557 Geneva Bible (GNV) Jehovah 4

1568 Bishop's Bible Jehovah

1610 Douay–Rheims Bible LORD

1611 King James Version (KJV) Jehovah 8

1823 【神天聖書】 神

1833 Webster's Bible Translation Jehovah 15

1854 【委辦譯本】 耶和華


第二個突破;『耶和華』全數回歸聖經

1862 Young's Literal Translation (YLT) Jehovah 6,831

1876 The Holy Bible Jehovah

1885 Revised Version (RV1885) Jehovah 16

1890 Darby Bible (DBY) Jehovah 6,810

1901 American Standard Version (ASV) Jehovah 6,823

第三個突破:平反『耶威』

1902 Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR) Yahweh

1914 The Modern Reader's Bible Jehovah 16

1919 【文理新舊約聖書】 耶和華

1919 【國語和合譯本】 耶和華

1936 The Holy Scriptures (1936, 1951) Jehovah

1949 Bible in Basic English (BBE) Yahweh 5

1950 The New Testament of our Messiah Yahweh and Saviour Yahshua

1952 Revised Standard Version (RSV) LORD

1954 Amplified Bible (1987) Yahweh 1

1961 The New English Bible Jehovah 8

1961 New World Translation (NWT) Jehovah 6,979

1963 Holy Name Bible Yahweh

1966 Amplified Bible Classic Edition (AMPC) Yahweh 1


第四個突破:『耶威』全數回歸聖經

1966 Jerusalem Bible (JB) Yahweh 6,823

1968 【聖經思高譯本】 上主 雅威 50

1969 The Modern Language Bible Jehovah 4

1970 【呂振中譯本】 永恆主

1970 New English Bible Jehovah 7

1970 Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible Yahweh

1971 New American Standard Bible (NASB) LORD

1971 The Living Bible (TLB) Jehovah 408

1971 The King James II Version (1971) Jehovah 9

1971 The New American Bible Yahweh 3

1972 The Bible in Living English Jehovah >6,800

1978 The New International Version LORD

1979 【現代中文譯本修訂版】 上主

1979 【當代譯本】 耶和華

1981 The Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition Yahweh

1982 The New King James Version LORD

1985 Green's Literal Translation Jehovah 6,866

1985 the Schocken Bible(Five books of Moses) YHWH

1987 Easy to Read Version (ERV) Yahweh 12

1987 The Book of Yahweh: The Holy Scriptures Yahweh

1989 The New Revised Standard Version LORD

1991 The New Century Version LORD

1992 【聖經新譯本】 耶和華

1993 The Scriptures (TS) 1993, 1998, 2009) 6,841 הוהי

1994 21st Century King James Version (KJ21) Jehovah 9

1995 The Contemporary English Version LORD

1996 New Living Translation (NLT) Yahweh 2

1998 Third Millennium Bible Jehovah 9


第四個突破:『耶威』全數回歸聖經

1999 The Recovery Version YHWH 6,841

1999 The American King James Version Jehovah 8

2000 World English Bible (WEB) Yahweh 5,795

2000 Sacred Scriptures, Family of Yah Edition Yahweh

2001 English Standard Version Yahweh

2001 The Holy Bible – Urim-Thummim Version Yahweh

2001 Hebraic-Roots Version (2001, 2004) הרהי

2003 The Word of Yahweh Yahweh

2003 A Voice in the Wilderness (VW Edition) Jehovah

2004 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB) Yahweh 495

2004 Restoration Scriptures: הרהי True Name Edition

2004 Zikarown Say'fer Memorial Scroll הרהי

2005 Sacred Name King James Bible הרהי

2007 The Seventh Millennium Version הרהי

2008 The Aramaic English New Testament הרהי

2009 HalleluYah Scriptures (2009, 2015) הרהי

2010 Abrahamic Faith Nazarene הרהי Hebraic Study Scriptures

 

2009 Hebraic Roots Bible (2012) Yahweh

2010 【新漢語譯本】 上主

2011 The Divine Name King James Bible Jehovah 6,973

2011 Name of God Bible(NOG) Yahweh 5,856

2011 The Restoration Study Bible Yahweh

2011 Lexham English Bible (LEB) Yahweh 5,824

2012 The Restored Name King James Version הרהי

2014 Shem Qadosh Version הרהי

2014 Neno La Yahweh Swahili version הרהי

2018 The First Testament Yahweh His Name Tanakh (In Progress) הרהי

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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