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【特稿】「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(二)

 

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「哈利路亞」是什麼意思?

聖經說由舊約到新約,世人都呼喚「哈利路亞」(Hallelu-Jah),希伯來文「哈利路亞」就是讚美耶和華的意思。「哈利路(Hallelu)」是讚美的意思,「亞 Jah」便是 "耶" 或 "雅" Yah 的拼音,是「耶和華」或「雅偉」Yahweh 名字的短稱,多麼親切呢!因此呼喚「哈利路亞」,已是直接讚美和呼喚(耶)和華的名。詩篇與啟示錄均有記載,也印證新舊約裡都有耶和華名字的存在。

有些信徒以為哈利路亞(Hallelujah),是讚美「主」,或讚美「神」的意思,這是不正確的翻譯。希伯來文 '讚美' 是 Hallel,'主' 是 adonai,'神' 是 el,'耶' 是 Jah。

倘若是讚美神,應當是,讚美(Hallel)+(el)神=讚美神(Hallelu-el)

倘若是讚美主,應當是,讚美(Hallel)+(adonai)主=讚美主(Hallelu-adonai)

倘若是讚美耶和華,應當是(Hallel)+(Jah)耶=讚美耶(Hallelu-Jah)

信徒們也應該知道哈利路亞(Hallelujah)的準確意思,好讓我們每次呼喚哈利路亞的時候,是以心靈與誠實崇拜,不會空喊口號。

基督是什麼意思?

整本舊約四十本書有一個主線,便是預言神將差遣 '救主彌賽亞' 來世上,拯救世人。希伯來文 Messiah 彌賽亞,希臘語是 Christos,英語 Christ 基督,意思是 The Anointed One 受膏者,意味是救世主。從耶穌降生那一天,天使便向牧人宣佈 '救主彌賽亞' 的降臨,耶穌也曾向使徒和撒馬利亞婦人等,啟示祂便是 '救主彌賽亞'。

你知道聖父與聖子的名字嗎?

將來,耶穌會站在錫安山,同祂有十四萬四千人,都有祂的名和祂父神的名寫在額上。將來,我們當中,有得勝的人,他們會在新耶路撒冷城的殿中作柱子,耶穌會把父神和祂自己的名寫在他們額上。在城裡,事奉耶穌的僕人,祂名字都必寫在他們的額上。

是否神有許多個名字?

不是,神只得一個名。從前的人有名無姓,在還未有姓氏以前,為著分辨有相同名字的人,便會用那人的特徵、個性或地區,結合在他的名字後面成為「私人結合名」personal pound name,以示類別。例如,亞力山大大帝 Alexander the Great,征服者威廉 William the Conqueror, Augustine of Hippo 等。

舊約的祖先,通過與神親密的關係,了解神的個性,就以祂多方面之美德結合在耶和華名字後面,起了二十一個讚美祂的「私人結合名」personal compound name,以紀念神供應給人類各方面的需要。不能說神有二十一個私人名字,只可說世人用了二十一個特徵來歌頌紀念祂。神依然只有一個私人名字,就是耶和華。

●「私人結合名」Personal Compound Name

(一)耶和華,神,Jehovah Elohim(Jehovah God)(創二:4)

(二)耶,Jahh,耶和華的簡稱(出十五:2;十七:16;詩六十八:4)

(三)耶和華,萬軍之神,Jehovah Elohim Saboath(Jehovah God of Hosts)(詩八十四:8;耶十五:16)

(四)耶和華,萬軍的主,Adonai Jehovah Saboath(Lord Jehovah of Host)(詩六十九:6)

(五)耶,神,Jah Elohim(Jehovah God) (詩六十八:18)

(六)耶,主,Jah Jehovah(Jeh Jehovah) (賽十二:2;廿六:4)

(七)耶和華以勒,耶和華必供給,Jehovah Jireh(Jehovah will provide)(創 廿二:14)

(八)耶和華,醫治你,Jehovah Rapha(Jehovah that heals)(出十五:26)

(九)耶和華尼西,耶和華是我旌旗,Jehovah Nissi(Jehovah my banner)(出 十七:15)

(十)耶和華,忌邪的神,Jehovah Kanna(Jehovah who is jealous)(出廿:5;卅四:14;申五:9)

(十一)耶和華,叫你們成聖的,Jehovah Medaddeskum(Jehovah who sanctifies)(出卅一:13;利廿:8)

(十二)耶和華沙龍,耶和華賜平安,Jehovah Shalom(Jehovah our Peace)(士 六:24)

(十三)耶和華,審判人的,Jehovah Shaphat(Jehovah is Judges)(士十一:27)

(十四)耶和華,萬軍,Jehovah Saboath(Jehovah of Hosts)(撒上一:3;詩廿四:10;八十四:1, 3)

(十五)耶和華至高者,Jehovah Elyon(Jehovah Most High)(詩七:17)

(十六)耶和華,我的牧者,Jehovah Raah或Jehovah Roi(Jehovah my Shepherd)(詩廿三:1)

(十七)耶和華,造我們的,Jehovah Hosenu(Jehovah our Maker)(詩九十五:6)

(十八)耶和華,勇士,Jehovah Gibbor(Jehovah is Mighty)(賽九:6;十:21;四十二:13)

(十九)耶和華,我們的義,Jehovah Tsidkenu(Jehovah our Righteousness)(耶 廿三:6)

(廿)耶和華,所在,Jehovah Shammah(Jehovah is There or Ever present)(結四十八:35)

(廿一)耶和華,救主,受膏者 Jehovah-Jehoshua-Christos(Jehovah Jesus Christ or Jehovah Savior Anointed)(Matthew 1:21; Acts 2:34-36; Ephesians 1:20-21; Luke 2:11,26 )

●「屬名結合名」personal compound name

Generic Compound Names

耶和華 Yahweh,是一個私人名字(proper or personal name)。祂的名字是耶和華,不是名叫「神」。「神」,只是一個屬名(generic or common name)每個語文,都有這個屬名詞彙,例如:中文叫「神」「上帝」,英文叫 God,亞拉伯文叫Allah(亞拉),希臘文是 Theos,阿蘭文是 Elah,德文叫 Gott,法文叫 Dieu,西班牙文叫 Dios,意大利文叫 Dio。

同樣道理,醫生,牙醫,郎中,大夫只是一個屬名(generic or common name),不是一個私人名字(personal name)。筆者是牙醫,大夫,醫生,但這些都不是我的名字,我只有一個私人名字:梁立己。

聖經舊約裡有三個神的屬名:Eloah, Elohim, and El。阿蘭文的屬名是 Elah。神的屬名在新約裡都翻譯為希臘文 Theos。

Eloah : Stong's Concordance number 433.

這個屬名在舊約出現約 50 次,其中 40 次出現在約伯記,有學者認為字根來自畏懼,意味祂是個敬畏的神,或當畏懼時我們可以避難的神。

Elohim(複數):Stong's Concordance number 430

這個屬名在舊約出現了 2300 次,是 ELoah 的複數。因此在聖經裡神多次以 '我們(us)' 自居。這名字意味著神的力量和權力。舊約士師時期,因為士師是神的代表,也被人稱呼為神Elohim的。這個屬名也用來指外邦人的假神和偶像。

El(單數),Elim(複數):Stong's Concordance number 410

這個屬名在舊約出現了約 200 次。也是意味著神的力量和權力。Eli 是 '我的神' 的意思。耶穌在十字架上便是這樣呼喊神:「以羅伊!以羅伊!拉馬撒巴各大尼?(我的神!我的神!為甚麼離棄我?)」El 的複數是 Elim,也是用來指外邦人的神或偶像的。有學者認為 El and Elohim 兩個屬名是來自 Eloah。

Elah : Stong's Concordance number 426

This is the generic name in Aramaic. It appears about 74 times.

舊約的祖先,把神多方面之美德與祂的屬名結合,起了十五個讚美祂的「屬名結合名」(generic compound name)。不是說希伯來文「神」有十四個屬名,只可說世人用了十四個美德來讚美祂的屬名,以紀念神供應給人類各方面的需要。

●「屬名結合名」(generic compound name)

(a)El,神(單數)。亦是強盛,權能,力量。

(b)Elohim,神(復數)。聖經出現約 2,500次。例如:Yehovah ab Elohim,耶和華,你們祖宗的神。

(c)El-Elyown,神至高的。例如,Elyown-El-Yehovah,至高的,神,耶和華。

(d)El-Roiy,神,看顧的,全知者「Omniscience」。例如,Yehovah sham roiy el,耶和華名,看顧人的神。 Be'er'la-Cha'y Ro'iy(庇耳、拉海、萊)井,活著,看顧,那位活著看顧我者之井。

(e)El-Shadday,神,全能者 「Omipotent」。

(f)El-Olam,神,永生者。

(g)El-Beth-El,神,神的家的神。

(h)El-Elohe-Israel,神,以色列的神。例如,El-elohey-Yisrael(伊利、羅伊、以色列)。

(i)Elowahh,神

(j)Elahh,神明

(k)El-Gibbowr,神,全能勇士。例如,Gadowl-Gibbowr-El-Yehovah,至大全能,萬軍之耶和華。

(l)Elohim-Elyon,神,至高者。

(m)Elohim-Saboath,神,元帥。

(n)Immanu-El

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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