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【特稿】舞台劇反映人生 -- 承載正面積極信念

 

Drama 1

 

聖經及神學的戲劇元素

戲劇與聖經和神學的關係並不是新的,除了耶穌常用充滿戲劇性的故事講比喻外,耶穌誕生的故事更是家傳戶曉,事實上,戲劇性故事的例子於新舊約中比比皆是。再者,舊約時的獻祭,配合不同的祭牲,祭司穿上的服飾和動作,加上眾以色列人的配搭和回應,在在有著相當程度的戲劇色彩。今天教會的崇拜,更是以耶穌基督為中心的的故事,而教會的節期就是重演耶穌戲劇性的一生。

「故事」充斥生活各層面,例如閒談時對日常生活的描述或對過去事件的憶述,也是在敘述有關的故事,而故事裡的背景、時間、人物等也正是戲劇不可或缺的元素。我們喜歡聽故事,也喜歡說故事!今天各種傳播媒體成為現代人不可缺少的生活形態,故事影響人類生活的同時也塑造著每個人的生命,身為天國子民的基督徒,生命更要被聖經故事去塑造,從而「成了一臺戲,給世人和天使觀看」(林前4:9下),忠心演好自己的角色,為神而活!


Drama 2從傳播模式探究 "福音劇"

由於本人早年修讀傳理系及有多年傳媒人的經驗,接下來的論説是結合傳播、傳道和福音劇的相互關係。

「傳播」(香港譯作傳理,即是傳播理論學科)是英文「communication」翻譯而來,源於拉丁文「communi」,意思是建立一共同性;因此,可以將傳播闡釋為:「由訊息的傳遞去建立共識」。1948年一傳播學者拉斯威爾(Lasswell)提出一個傳播模式(model),亦成為日後研究此學科的典範。其模式包括:


* 誰(Who):傳播者(sender)

一齣公演的戲劇,傳播者就是主辦及製作機構,有時是一個單位,有時是兩個,以[泉源劇社]為例,我們的宗旨是服侍大溫(metro-Vancouver)的華人教會,補其欠缺專業戲劇製作的不足,以福音伙伴的形式,舉辦話劇佈道及培靈會,九年多以來大多數是教會主辦,劇社負責製作演出;同時亦曾經有幾次是劇社核心小組受聖靈感動而自發主辦,尋找教會協辦、供應場地及教會的弟兄姊妹處理接待、茶點等事宜。

無論用甚麼形式也好,由於每次傳福音都是一場屬靈爭戰,教會和劇社台前幕後事奉的弟兄姊妹亦是傳播者,以此為祭獻上,所以在我們實踐"藉著戲劇將人帶到神面前"的使命之前,要自己先來到神面前,藉每天的靈修與神有良好的關係。

* 向誰(To Whom):觀眾(receiver or targeted/intended audience)

應用傳播理論很強調目標觀眾(Target audience )的重要,即先定所傳的訊息(message )是向誰傳,例如一齣文藝言情電影的 target audiences 是女性,所以大多數男觀眾覺得悶是預期的,製作人亦無需為此辯解。故此,我們首先思考:福音劇的目標觀眾是誰,清楚後,才能確立內容。當然,非信徒為我們要瞄準的目標,但是亦不能忽視信徒們對故事的認受性,因為倘若他們對該話劇不接受的話,又怎能激勵他們邀請未信主的親友呢!

* 說什麼(Says What):訊息(message)

知道了要 "向誰說",便可決定要 "說什麼",我們演出的,是以現代人的生活及生命故事為本,讓觀眾從劇中人的生命作自我反省,所以題材是每個人的故事,這樣觀眾便能從劇中人的遭遇、內心面對的掙扎產生共鳴,繼而受感動,話劇後牧者回應信息按照劇情,引導觀眾一步一步去反省,再從聖經的內容及角度去尋找出路。

例如劇社將於五月二十八日晚上於溫哥華菲沙崙教會演出的音樂劇《蘇屋邨荷花樓》,主人翁的故事橫跨 70 年代的香港至今天溫哥華,經歷人生種種波折,但是藉著神的愛和永恆的盼望,仍然活得精彩;此劇去年初夏首演感動了無數移居溫哥華的觀眾。

* 透過什麼通道 (In Which Channel) 或媒介(media)

"戲劇" 就是我們採用的媒介,戲劇能牽動我們/觀眾的回憶,探討內心深處,及釋出我們內心的痛苦,且能減低觀眾的防衛機制而使信息更能注入心靈。然而,在各種媒體(media)中為何要選擇舞台劇呢?用舞台劇傳福音獨特之處,是現場演出,觀眾在同一時間空間,去經歷劇中人的生離死別,喜怒哀樂,當中的感染力比其他電子媒介都要強。

* 回應(feedback)

一個完整的傳播模式是不能缺少回應的,這裡的回應(feedback)除了之前所說的觀眾受感動決志和重新立志,及牧者的回應信息外,我們也因應不同類型劇種而設計回應表,亦有讓他們帶回家再反省,或配上決志禱文咭等,我們忠心地做撒種人,種子落在石上、亁土、或是好土以至結多倍的果子都交在神手裡!

(筆者是[泉源劇社]事工傳道、編劇、導演。網頁:www.fountain-theatre.com)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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