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【猶太小百科】逾越節中的彌賽亞

 

Judish

 

每年的逾越節,各家各戶的猶太人家庭將要一同聚集,品嚐逾越節晚餐,一方面記念 神救贖他的子民離開埃及為奴,亦是藉此機會與家人親友團聚。主耶穌和祂門徒的最後晚餐,本身就是慶祝逾越節的一部份。主耶穌知道自己將要被釘死,祂便告訴門徒:「我很願意在受害以先和你們吃這逾越節的筵席。」(路22:15)。在這個慶典上,他把逾越節的元素(無酵餅和杯),指向他的身體和血,並象徵著他的死。

現今逾越節開始前,所有有酵的食物,都是象徵罪,必須從信奉猶太教的家庭中被除去。這猶太教家庭將全屋清洗乾淨,以及家中所有含酵的東西都要除去。然後,逾越節前的黃昏,家中的父親會拿著傳統的清潔工具:一根羽毛和一個袋子,搜尋任何可能遺漏而有酵之處。我和家人住在耶路撒冷時,隔壁鄰居是正統派猶太教人士,他們更會在逾越節前夕,將有酵的食物送給我們,例如意大利粉及麵包等,避免浪費。

逾越節晚餐中有一個特別的傳統。在桌上會放一個袋子,內裡具有三個隔層,每層放一塊無酵餅,共三塊在袋子內。中間那塊無酵餅會被取出,擘開兩半,一半放回中間層袋裡,另一半則被包在麻布裡並隱藏起來,待飯後,再被取出來。晚飯結束,家宴的主人會引導孩子們,去尋找飯前被收起的藏餅,英文稱為 Afikomen。整個房子都在哄動,周圍的人都在看誰是第一個找到藏餅,將獲得祖父為了贖藏餅而提供的獎品或獎金。一旦主人收集回藏餅,他便將之擘碎和分發一小片給在座每一個人。猶太人並不真正了解這個傳統,他們只是跟著做。然而,猶太人普遍認為,這些藏餅會為吃的人帶來祝福及長壽。

猶太基督徒認為,這傳統或許可以追溯到耶穌時代。如果是這樣的話,那麼路22:19便存在一個更大的意義:「又拿起餅來,祝謝了,就擘開,遞給他們,說:『這是我的身體,為你們捨的。你們也應當如此行,為的是記念我。』」因為彌賽亞耶穌代表著神與人之間的中保,祂被殺害,有如藏餅被擘開,一半包在餐巾裡,正如主耶穌被包裹在亞麻布安葬,藏起它,祂被埋葬,把它找出帶回來,正如祂復活了,並將無酵餅分給在座的每一個人,因為祂將自己的生命,賜給一切相信他的人。主耶穌好像中間的那塊無酵餅,代表祂無瑕疵的身體,為救贖世人而捨去。由於逾越節無酵餅的樣式,是被壓扁和被刺穿,主的身體也被壓傷和刺穿,透過那些傷痕,我們得醫治(以賽亞書53:5)。猶太基督徒相信,這中間那塊的無酵餅或尋回來的藏餅,就是我們聖餐記念主的餅。

猶太教人士等待和期盼彌賽亞,但他們卻沒有意識到,彌賽亞已經來臨了。我們這些相信耶穌的人知道,祂就是眾先知所指向的那一位,祂是完美無瑕的逾越節羔羊,祂的身體為我們破碎,祂的寶血為我們流出,任何藉著祂的血,塗在心中門框的人,都已經越過死亡,得著祂永恆的生命。請禱告記念猶太人,能聽到主耶穌便是逾越節羔羊之信息,祂為世人的罪而死在十字架上,以重價買贖拯救世人。

(作者:選民事工差會宣教士)

The Messiah in the Passover
Gordon Law

Passover is a Jewish holiday in memory of exodus out of Egypt for freedom from slavery. It's also a time for family feasting. Jesus refers to the yeast less bread and the cup at his last supper as his body and blood from his death. (Luke 22:19 )

Right before Passover, the father of a Judaism family uses a feather and a bag to get rid of all the yeast at home because yeast signifies sin.

During a Passover feast, a treasure hunt game called Afikomen is played. A bag with three layers is placed on the table and every layer has a piece of yeast less bread. The middle piece will be broken into two halves, one half will be hidden for hunting and the other half will stay in the bag. The first person who finds the hidden bread will get a prize and then both halves will be distributed and eaten for long life and blessings.

Jewish Christians believe that Jesus is the middle yeast less bread. That's why Christians break the bread in memory of Jesus who was crucified, broken, wrapped in linens, buried, and resurrected.

Jewish people of Judaism are still waiting for their Messiah to come, without acknowledging that Messiah has already come. In the past, the blood of the lamb was painted on the frame of each family door so they could escape the fatal calamity.

Please pray for Jewish people that they would heed the call of Jesus, the Passover Lamb who died on the cross to redeem their lives.

(The author is Missionary of the Chosen Ministry)


參考書目:

Bock, Darrell & Mitch Glaser (Ed.). (2017). Messiah in the Passover. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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