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【敬拜與音樂】崇拜中的神學與音樂之地位

 

美國改革宗教會﹝Reformed Church in America﹞的崇拜委員會在 1996 年發表了一篇名為《崇拜中的神學與音樂之地位》﹝The Theology and Place of Music in Worship﹞的文章。為了進一步促進美國改革宗教會中關於音樂和崇拜的對話,並鼓勵健康和充滿活力的會眾歌詩作為教會事工的重要部分,這文章提供了一些關於音樂在神學和基督教崇拜中的反思。 文章最後提出了一些建議的指導方針,用於評估和選擇會眾崇拜的音樂。

這文章提醒我們﹐音樂是上帝的禮物,也是創造秩序的一部分。從一開始,"那時晨星一同歌唱,神的眾子也都歡呼。"(約伯記38:7)以及"我又聽見在天上、地上、地底下、滄海裡和天地間一切所有被造之物都說:'但願頌讚、尊貴、榮耀、權勢都歸給坐寶座的和羔羊,直到永永遠遠!'"(啟示錄5:13)天地也是十分有音樂感的﹐人類的音樂創作反映了上帝創造的秩序、美麗和多樣性。

在讚美上帝的所有樂器中,人的聲音具有優先權﹐其他樂器主要用於配合上帝的子民唱歌。唱歌是一個所有屬於上帝人的事工﹐ 會眾始終是主要的合唱團﹐專業或志願者合唱團和音樂家的作用是幫助全體人民敬拜上帝。 雖然會眾可以獻上聲樂獨唱和樂器獨奏,但我們必須明白會眾歌唱是必不可少的。

在所有可用於禮拜的藝術形式中,會眾唱歌是特別重要的。事實上,會眾唱詩是最適合表達教會在基督身體中的統一的藝術形式。不同的聲音、不同的樂器、不同的部分被混合在一起,提供單一的、生活化的、統一的美的作品。約翰·加爾文認識到會眾歌唱和協調禱告的力量,幫助教會表達和體驗基督身體的統一。他斷言人類的舌頭是為了宣揚上帝的榮美而存在的,無論是通過唱歌還是說話。

教會的歌唱事工是為了上帝的榮耀﹐會眾唱詩的主要方向是主(詩篇96:1)。音樂應該在上帝面前傳達並表達敬畏和驚奇的感覺;它應該把我們的思想引向上帝而不是自己。

教會的歌唱事工是為了造就上帝的子民﹐通過會眾的詩歌,表達了基督教的信仰。由於人們傾向於記住他們所唱的神學而不是所傳講的神學,因此會眾的讚美詩曲目在塑造其信仰方面是十分重要。同樣,歌詞文本的含義是最重要的,因為崇拜之歌塑造了信仰。我們可以通過上帝子民的話語來了解上帝和基督徒生活的本質和品格。傳統上基督教的讚美詩包含了一些關於教會最緊湊,最簡潔的教義和思想。通過會眾的詩歌,上帝的子民學習關於上帝的語言和如何與上帝說話。

音樂能夠喚起強烈的情感﹐正確使用音樂的情感力量時,便可以在崇拜中間成為重要和鼓舞的幫助。同樣重要的是,崇拜中音樂的情感力量應該是令人回味的,而不是操縱的,誠實的而不是製造的,並且會眾的歌聲容許在崇拜中有經歷各種的情感。

此外,本文還提供了一些有關評估和培養會眾歌唱的建議指南:


在我們的會眾唱詩中表達了什麼神學?﹝What theology is expressed in our congregational singing?

這歌詞是來自聖經的嗎?它與我們教會的神學一致嗎?我們的音樂事工有足夠的牧靈的廣寬度嗎?﹝Is there sufficient pastoral breadth in our music ministry? ﹞

有足夠的禮儀廣寬度嗎?﹝Is there sufficient liturgical breadth? ﹞我們的會眾唱詩是否包括教會年各季節的歌曲和讚美詩?

是否有足夠的歷史、文化和幾代人的廣寬度?﹝Is there sufficient historical, cultural, and generational breadth? ﹞

我們讚美詩的語言是否有包容性?﹝Is the language of our hymns inclusive? ﹞

我們是否向會眾提供了足夠的讚美詞彙?﹝Are we providing our congregation with a sufficient vocabulary of praise? ﹞

音樂是否為歌詞文本服侍?﹝Does the music serve the text? ﹞

我們的音樂是否鼓勵集體崇拜?﹝Does our music encourage corporate worship? ﹞

音樂是否適合會眾的能力?﹝Is the music appropriate to the ability of the congregation? ﹞

我們唱的讚美詩和合唱團是否承擔並鼓勵門徒訓練的成長?﹝Do the hymns and choruses we sing assume and encourage growth in discipleship? ﹞

筆者希望以上這些問題能幫助我們檢查每個星期日我們放入會眾口中頌唱的讚美詩。檢查的目的是確保我們放入口中的音樂和歌詞都是高品質的。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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